Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is knee joint degenerative disease, it is due to wear and tear and progressive loss of knee joint articular cartilage, most common among elderly population. Osteoarthritis will progressively degenerate and eventually lead to disability in the future. The clinical symptoms and severity vary from each individual. Common clinical symptoms include knee pain that is gradual in onset and worse with activity, knee stiffness and swelling, pain after prolonged sitting or resting, and pain that worsens over time. Treatment for knee osteoarthritis start with conservative treatment, surgical treatment options will consider when conservative treatment fails.

The exercises for knee osteoarthritis consists of 3 component which are stretching exercise, range of motion exercise and strengthening.

Stretching exercise

1) Standing calf stretch: 3 repetitions with 30s hold

2) Lying hamstring stretch: 3 repetitions with 30s hold

3) Prone quadriceps stretch: 3 repetitions with 30s hold

Range of motion exercise

1) Long arc quadriceps exercise: 3 sets of 10 repetition with 3s hold


Strengthening exercise

1) Isometric quad exercise: 3 sets of 10 repetition with 6s hold


Hsu, H., & Siwiec, R. M. (2019). Knee Osteoarthritis. Nih.gov; StatPearls Publishing. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK507884/

Physical therapy for patients with knee and hip osteoarthritis: supervised, active treatment is current best practice. (2019, September 6). Clin Exp Rheumatol. https://www.clinexprheumatol.org/abstract.asp?a=14740Deyle

G. D., Henderson, N. E., Matekel, R. L., Ryder, M. G., Garber, M. B., & Allison, S. C. (2000). Effectiveness of Manual Physical Therapy and Exercise in Osteoarthritis of the Knee. Annals of Internal Medicine, 132(3), 173. https://doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-132-3-200002010-00002

Prepared by

Lim Fu Yoong

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